Acute myocardial stroke; symptoms and treatment


A heart attack or acute myocardial stroke is the most serious disease of blood vessels. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death; statistics show that nearly half of men and over 60 percent of women lose the battle with cardiovascular disease. What is particularly worrying is the fact that more and more people are often diagnosed with pre-cardiac condition and among them are young adults, due to extremely unhealthy eating habits, lack of movement and total absence of physical activity.

In our text find out what is a myocardial stroke, how to recognize and prevent it in time, what are the symptoms of a heart attack, what nutrition and diet is recommended during recovery and rehabilitation. Stay tuned.

Symptoms of a heart attack in women and men

A heart attack is caused by narrowing of the blood vessels, most often caused by atherosclerosis. When atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, a blood clot is formed in a blood vessel of the heart. Then part of the heart muscle associated with it becomes a scar with no function. Acute myocardial stroke is the last stage of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and occurs after a complete blockage of a coronary artery or its branches. Then part of the heart muscle beneath the affected area remains without the circulation and leads to necrosis and death of a noble heart tissue.

The most common and most important symptoms of myocardial stroke are pain behind the breastbone, and there are other signs of a heart attack - weight, discomfort or pressure in the chest, shortness of breath, intense sweating, nausea, fatigue, and rhythm disturbance.
The pain can be less severe, ranging up to a very strong and last longer than ten minutes. Patients should then cease all activities, stay calm, and seek professional help - on clinical examination it will be determined if it is the case of acute myocardial stroke. 

It should be noted that not every chest pain is of cardiac origin, similar symptoms are given when it comes to chest injuries, rheumatic processes in the walls of the chest, injuries and fractures of the ribs, herpes zoster, gastritis and oesophageal reflux disease, pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, disorders of the spine and spinal cord.

Sometimes symptoms of a heart attack can be completely absent, and patients almost have no warning signs. According to the latest statistics, so called heart attack without pain occurs in as many as 20 percent of patients, it is very common in people with diabetes. On the ECG recording you can observe signs of damage and the patient was not even aware of the fact that he/she has suffered a heart attack.

So, if myocardial stroke knocked on your door, your heart is already damaged. It cannot regenerate, but in consultation with the cardiologist, regular consumption of prescribed medication and a change of lifestyle can prevent new diseases.

Acute myocardial stroke; therapy and recovery
  • First aid for a heart attack is to accommodate patients as comfortably as possible in a position that is half-sitting. Then the patient is strictly prohibited the slightest physical effort.
  • If that person has a diagnosed angina pectoris, it must be given nitroglycerine under the tongue.
  • For those who do not have this diagnosis, Andol tablets (100 mg) or aspirin can be useful. 
  • After initial medical treatment, be sure to contact a cardiologist, who will based on the symptoms and the condition of the patient determine further treatment.
  • Acute myocardial stroke is treated exclusively in hospitals by the entire team of cardiologists, who decide after symptoms have subsided completely whether it is necessary to conduct a surgery, bypass surgery, stent implantation or continued treatment with medications.
  • To begin the process of rehabilitation, it is necessary to do a coronary angiography.

Recovery begins in the hospital, where you can spend a few days, and if you have been installed a bypass, then stay in a hospital room a little longer. After a heart attack, you are obliged to do exercise and physical activity, because it strengthens the heart.

Of course, you are not expected to apply to a marathon, but in consultation with the cardiologist you can start with light walking or aerobics class. However, be careful not to overdo it - acute myocardial stroke requires your full engagement and then call your doctor if you notice during practice at least one of the following symptoms: ragged breathing that lasts for more than ten minutes, pain in the chest, arms, neck, jaw or stomach, irregular heartbeat, cold sweat, nausea or dizziness, and swelling of the legs.

Rehabilitation after a myocardial stroke

A lot of people after experiencing an acute myocardial stroke later feel fear, which may be accompanied by depression or anxiety. These situations can be avoided if you are laughing. Laugh as much as possible as this will raise the levels of good cholesterol in the blood and destroy the hormones responsible for stress, which increases the risk of subsequent heart attacks.

Also, do not let it disrupt your sleep schedule - people who sacrifice sleep are far more susceptible to cardiovascular problems.

Be sure to stop smoking

Studies show that one year after quitting smoking the risk of new cardiovascular disease is reduced by as much as 50 percent – enjoyment in cigarettes increases blood clotting and increases the amount of fat in it.

This vice leads to high blood pressure, and one of the most important rules after a heart attack is that the pressure must be kept under control, because in tandem with arteriosclerosis it increases the likelihood of heart attack up to five times, leading to other diseases.

If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, you need to regularly control the level of blood sugar, and if you are overweight, be sure to consult with a nutritionist, because the risk for  an acute myocardial stroke increases, as well as for the development of other cardiovascular diseases, by 3.1 percent with each new kilogram of body weight.

What kind of diet is recommended for heart patients? 

Avoid sweets and snacks

With proper selection of foods, your heart can beat almost the same as before, except that you should not forget that the acute myocardial stroke made it more vulnerable - experts say that you can strengthen the heart adhering to a Mediterranean diet.

Eat lighter meals during the day and avoid foods that contain saturated fats and trans fats because they can clog blood vessels. Fried and fast foods, industrially processed foods, such as sweets and snacks, should not you be on the menu. The same goes for foods that have too much salt, sugar and cholesterol. Therefore limited consumption of milk and dairy products is advised, as well as red meat, animal liver, kidneys and brain, and you should not exaggerate in the consumption of eggs.

Not all fats are bad

In contrast to the fatty meat that should not be on the table, oily fish is a great choice, and enjoy it at least twice a week. It is rich in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids, which are also present in nuts and flax seeds.

These acids keep blood vessels and prevent blood clots, and coenzyme Q10 from fish increases the elasticity of blood vessels, and is required for normal heart function. On the other hand, the food should be prepared on a cold pressed olive oil but other vegetable oils can also be a good choice, and you do not need to buy them refined.

The benefits of oats

After a heart attack, a healthy breakfast should occasionally include oatmeal oats. You can cook them yourself. Experts say that the optimal daily amount is three cups of cereal if you eat them in the form of finished cereal. This is an ideal diet for heart patients.

Oats are beneficial for the heart because they lower the levels of bad cholesterol in the blood, and at the same time raise the levels of good ones. Nutrition after myocardial stroke can include other whole grains (create your own muesli or bread), as well as legumes - an inexhaustible source of valuable fibre.

If you are not a fan of beans or peas, then you should incorporate humus in your diet, because chickpeas are one of its main ingredients. Nuts also lower bad cholesterol levels, but certainly we should not exaggerate in their consumption - a handful of hazelnuts or walnuts a day is more than sufficient.

For acute myocardial stroke be sure to eat fruits and vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are the best source of valuable antioxidants, and individual vitamins. Thus, vitamin C protects the heart from diseases and regulates cholesterol levels. Most of it is in apples, grapes and citrus fruit. Particularly effective is the orange juice, which reduces the thickening of blood vessels, and lemon juice in combination with honey cleans the blood vessels and lowers bad cholesterol, and is ideal for the prevention of acute myocardial stroke.

On the other hand, if you add quince and apricot to your diet you will supply your organism in vitamin A, while apples, pears and plums are rich in fibre which binds to cholesterol in order to help eliminate it from the body. As the prevention against heart attack eating more berries and vegetables is recommended - bell peppers and garlic, which effectively lower cholesterol and protect the cardiovascular system.

Nutrition after myocardial stroke; recipes

Salmon and quinoa patties 
  • On a little olive oil fry a finely chopped onion and half a cup of chopped celery. Mix it with one cup of cooked quinoa, three eggs and 200g of minced salmon. Season it with Himalaya salt and black pepper according to individual taste. Make eight small patties or balls and fry them in olive oil. Serve with grilled or steamed vegetables of your choice.

Spinach and fruit with nuts salad
  • In a large bowl, pour four cups of fresh spinach leaves, a cup of fresh strawberries cut in half, a cup of fresh blueberries, a small onion cut into slices and a quarter cup of chopped walnuts. For the topping, mix two tablespoons of honey, two tablespoons of mustard, and two tablespoons of vinegar, a teaspoon of curry powder and a bit of pepper. Mix everything well and cool it in the fridge before serving the salad.

For acute myocardial stroke the most important thing is the prevention, to stop the disease of returning again. Proper lifestyle, which includes varied diets with less salt, fat and sweets, a lot of fruits and vegetables and adequate intake of fluids in the body is required. Smoking, high blood fats, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and mental stress are factors that favour the development of ischemic heart disease. Fortunately, they fall in variable risk factors. If there is already a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, it is important to take regular treatment, and have regular check-ups. We recommend an article wine for the heart.