Royal jelly for strengthening immunity

Royal jelly for strengthening immunity

Royal jelly is a real gift of nature. This precious substance is secreted by young bees that have not yet begun to fly: one kind of royal jelly is intended for the feeding of worker larvae while the second feed the queen bee.


Royal jelly is sticky, pale lactic, creamy and very acidic substance with an intense aroma and taste.

Royal Jelly Composition

It contains proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, amino acids, vitamins B, C and E, and minerals. It has the most medicinal properties immediately after the collection and eventually loses its beneficial properties.

Royal jelly as medicine 
  • to strengthen the immunity and increase resistance to infection, it is especially effective if there are symptoms of flu and colds
  • for the treatment of anemia, it has proven to be very successful in joint action with iron
  • slows aging and stimulates the development and growth of children
  • slows atherosclerosis
  • helps with diabetes
  • calms the body and helps with depression
  • it has stimulating effect on the operation of the adrenal glands

Royal jelly; USE

Most often it is used in the case of flu, colds and various viral infections, and also strengthens the immune system, accelerates the healing of bones after fractures, relieves pain caused by rheumatism and arthritis, regulates blood pressure and lowers blood sugar levels.
In addition, this gift of nature eliminates nervousness, regulates hormone secretion and prevents infection of male and female sexual organs.

Royal jelly for children 

As we have already mentioned royal jelly stimulates bone growth and development in children. It has the strength like breast milk because its main task is to create a strong and fruitful queen bee, which is the weight of up to twice than other bees and is very resistant because they live seventy times longer. Because of that the royal jelly for children is extremely useful, while in adults it rejuvenates cells and protects against disease.

Royal jelly in honey

This bee product regulates the work of all our vital organs and accelerates recovery of kidneys, bladder, liver disease and heart. Royal jelly in honey is recommended for asthmatics. It is great for detoxification of the body as well as skin diseases, cataracts, decay. It is also recommended to use during menopause.

Royal jelly and virility

It has proven positive effect on potency in women and men. This "aphrodisiac from the hive" is best combined with honey and pollen.

  • Stir 1 kg of honey, 50 grams of pollen and 10 grams of royal jelly.
  • One tablespoon of the mixture dissolve in warm water.
  • Take 3 times one tablespoon before each meal.

Therapy with this healthful beverage lasts up to two months. It is recommended that with the drink you drink rosemary tea, which also boosts potency, improves circulation and protects our body against infections.

Royal jelly in pregnancy

Here we cannot give a universal answer to whether it is free to use or not. In any case consult with your doctor if you plan on using this bee product.

NOTE: Royal jelly is always taken with a wooden or plastic spoon, because metal destroys its valuable and nutritious ingredients. When consuming in any of its form, keep it longer in the mouth under the tongue for it to gently be absorbed and enter your bloodstream. It is possible to have less side effects which usually last only a few days and they are rash or diarrhea. They occur because toxic substances are expelled from the body, because as we have said before jelly accelerates detoxification.

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Inflammation of the ovaries symptoms | treatment | ovaritis

Inflammation of the ovaries symptoms ovaritis

Inflammation of the ovaries is manifested through urination, dull pain in one or both ovaries, nausea and bloating of the stomach, bleeding and increased temperature. This bacterial infection surgery and uterus is often associated with inflammation of bladder. Women’s gonads have a dual role in body: they produce egg cells and sex hormones progesterone and estrogen, which control the development of sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics, and hormones from the ovaries regulate the monthly cycle of ovulation and menstruation. The most common reason why women visit a gynecologist, is the inflammation of the ovaries (ovaritis) because each bacterial infection of the genital area can travel to the internal reproductive organs.

Inflammation of the ovaries; SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of inflammation of the ovaries are strong pain in one or both ovaries and general weakness with difficulty in urination, bloating, bleeding and even temperature. The pains occur or intensifies during menstruation, can cause irregular menstruation, characteristic and pain during sexual intercourse, etc. We can distinguish acute and chronic inflammation of the ovaries. When the doctor diagnoses the condition, he will recommend bed rest and antibiotics and painkillers, while serious complications sometimes require surgery.

Inflammation of the ovaries; CAUSES

Inflammation of the ovaries is a bacterial infection that affects the area of ​​the ovaries and uterus and is often associated with cystitis – inflammation of the bladder. Normally, in this region microorganisms live that are not pathogenic and not endanger health. However, in special circumstances, such as long-term wearing of tight clothing, a weakened immune system, colds, inflammation of other organs (bladder, appendix ...) can spontaneously develop inflammatory process. Inflammation of the ovary symptoms are closely related to the time of year, although it is believed that most often it comes during the winter because of the cold and inadequate dress code, especially wearing short shirt and shallow pants. The cold is certainly not good for the ovaries, however, inflammation can cause sudden changes in temperature and swimming in contaminated water. This disease may be caused by the microorganisms that are sexually transmitted - Chlamydia and gonococci, which usually happen in women younger than 25 years of age.

Inflammation of the ovaries; TREATMENT

In order to start the treatment of inflammation of the ovaries, it is necessary to establish an accurate diagnosis based on history, laboratory analysis, clinical picture and, gynecological examination and laparoscopy. Diagnosis is sometimes difficult, especially in the case of ovarian cysts or if there is some other disorder (pressure of an organ, or hard stool in the rectum, bladder disease), and it is therefore obliged to review it with an ultrasound. Inflammation with puss is also successfully treated with antibiotics, but then the patient requires hospitalization.

Inflammation of the ovaries and fallopian tubes; POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES

Frequent inflammation of the ovaries can cause blockage of the fallopian tubes, which is one of the most common causes of infertility. Even 12 to 15 percent of women have trouble conceiving after one ovary inflammation. Also, ectopic pregnancy is more common after this disease, it is necessary to consult with your gynecologist if another state follow shortly after the inflammation of the ovaries.
Taking care of reproductive health, in addition to personal hygiene, means avoiding high-risk sexual contact, because inflammation can cause microorganisms and portable sexual intercourse. Also, it is important to establish a timely diagnosis and start treatment in order for inflammation of the ovaries not to spread.
Inflammation of the ovaries during pregnancy

To avoid induced abortions as a result of inflammation of the ovaries, it is necessary to take all the above relevant percussions. It is important that pregnant women and prospective mothers timely start treatment if ovarian inflammation occurs.It is needed to immediately contact a gynecologist to do a detailed diagnosis, otherwise inflammation can spread.


Nettle and apple cider vinegar lining
  • Slice fresh leaves and tops of the nettle and mash them well with a wooden mallet.
  • Spray them with apple vinegar
  • Wrap the nettle in a double and overnight and keep on the lower abdomen overnight.
  • Repeat the procedure two or three times a week.

Inflammation of the ovaries; shepherd's purse tea
  • 2 teaspoons of shepherd’s purse pour with 2.5 dl of boiling water.
  • Cover and leave to stand for 15 minutes, then strain.
  • Drink for the next 6 to 8 weeks, twice a day.

Lady’s mantle tea
  • 1 tablespoon of finely ground lady’s mantle pour with 2.5 l of cold water, let it boil and then remove from the heat.
  • Cover to stand for 15 minutes, this tea for ovarian inflammation drink 3 times a day for the next 3-4 weeks.
  • Make a 14 days break and then repeat the whole process.

Yarrow Bath 

In the Inflammation of the ovaries, symptoms are often accompanied by a variety of discomfort, this bath will help in alleviating the symptoms.
  • 100 grams of finely chopped dried yarrow pour with 2 liters of cold water to which you add 4-5 tablespoons of sea salt.
  • Cook over low heat for 10 minutes then cover and let it rest for half an hour and strain.
  • Liquid pour into a sitting bath and add hot water. Bath is applied for 20 to 30 minutes.
  • After treatment warm yourself good. Apply it every second or third day, for the next month.
  • In case of any problems, discontinue this therapy.

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Body mass index

The mass index table

Body mass index table or a BMI calculator (Body Mass Index) helps us to calculate the degree of obesity in an individual and shows us possible problems that excessive weight can cause.

BMI calculator has been a good indicator for the measurement and is most often applied by the doctors.

Powered by BMI Calculator

Body mass index (BMI) is a ratio of body weight in kilograms by height squared in meters. Even though BMI calculator is often used it has its flaws and shortcomings. First of all, it is possible to be overweight and have a good body mass index, and on the other hand not have too much weight and a bad BMI result. Here is the explanation: the ratio of lean mass and body weight that is the composition of our body is much more important than the amount of kilograms we have.

We will provide an example with weightlifters. Their body is composed of a lot of muscle tissue, so that the increased body mass index is not worrisome. People who are in poor physical condition active and are completely inactive, who cannot deal with just any kind of physical activity have a good BMI scores but on the other hand have a high percentage of body fat. Still these are rare cases since in practice the largest number of obese patients has a high percentage of body fat.

Body mass index conclusion

Assessment of nutritional status according to the World Health Organization by BMI (Body Mass Index) in adults (in this assessment pregnant women were not included):
  • Less than 18.5 = underweight persons
  • From 18.5 to 24.9 = person with the preferred-normal weight, ie. ideal weight
  • From 25.0 to 29.9 = persons with increased weight
  • From 30.0 to 34.9 = persons with first degree of obesity – mild obesity
  • From 35,0 to 39.9 = persons with second degree obesity - severe obesity
  • over 40 = persons with third degree of obesity - extreme obesity

Throat cancer symptoms | treatment | forecast

Throat cancer symptoms | treatment | forecast

Throat cancer symptoms such as changes in color and intensity of voice and frequent hoarseness are the first indicators of the disease. Throat carcinoma represents malignant disease that usually affects the larynx and sometimes the pharynx or tonsils. This malignant tumor occurs in 97% of cases in the male population, while only in 3% is present in women. Frequently age of patients is between 50-70, and in the last few years there is an increasing number of female patients, as well as plenty of younger members of the population.


The larynx is an organ in the form of pipes, about two inches long, located above the windpipe (trachea), which conducts air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. Epiglottis, elastic cartilage at the entrance to the larynx serves as a "cap" that prevents food or liquid to go into the trachea during swallowing. In this body located are vocal cords, which vibrate when air passes through them pushed out of the lungs, creating sound. In men, the larynx is something more expressive, usually known as the Adam's apple.

Throat cancer; TYPES

According to the place where the throat cancer occurs it is divided into supraglottic carcinoma (above the vocal cords), laryngeal carcinoma (at the level of the vocal cords) and subglottic carcinoma (below the vocal cords that is the area that connects the larynx with trachea). Localization of the tumor is very important because it depends on the therapy. Cancer of vocal cords (laryngeal carcinoma) accounts for 60% of all tumors of the larynx, and is characterized by constant hoarseness, and it can be detected at an early stage. Supraglottic and subglottic cancer exhibit symptoms much latter, and spreads rapidly and early metastases in local lymph nodes, and their prognosis is more serious.

Throat Cancer Symptoms

Throat cancer first symptoms are hoarseness or change in color and the voice. Supraglottic tumors are sources of growth on the neck, accompanied by a sore throat that lasts longer than six weeks, harsh and painful swallowing (dysphagia), a sense of presence of foreign body in the throat, and pain in the ear. Tumors that are formed below the vocal cords are identified by the difficult and loud breathing which in advanced stages resembles a hissing noise, but the disease is often accompanied by persistent dry cough and bloody sputum. Throat cancer causes rapid weight loss, bad breath and often choking on food.

How to recognize throat cancer

Having established that the symptoms of throat cancer are present with palpable lymph nodes in the neck, each physician gets an estimate of the disease. For throat cancer to be confirmed, it is necessary to laryngoscopy (tubes with cameras). If there are changes, it is necessary to take a tissue sample that after a biopsy confirms the presence of cancer.

Throat Cancer Causes

The emergence of throat cancer in over 90% of cases is associated with smoking, a fatal combination of cigarettes and alcohol. The development of the disease can also be caused by the exposure to toxic substances such as asbestos, wood and coal dust, formaldehyde, paints and varnishes, petroleum products. At risk are also people people who have already had a malignant tumor in the head and neck, people with a genetic predisposition, as well as those who eat unhealthy food. Throat infections with HPV increases the risk of laryngeal cancer, and stomach acid reflux (heartburn), which damages the delicate mucous membrane of the vocal chords, creating a foundation for the development of cancer.


Treatment of tumors mainly depends on its size, as well as localization of cancer and general condition of the patient.

Throat cancer surgery

The removal of malignant tissue by surgery, however, requires removal of the part or the entire larynx (laryngectomy), after which the patient loses power of speech. Laser surgery is performed on smaller tumors, and very often radiation is applied as a part of  the therapy.

How to defeat throat cancer naturally

Recipe No.1
  • 500 grams of chicory cook in 2.5 liters of water in the liquid, add 300 grams of finely milled fresh aloe vera.
  • Then add 400 grams of clover honey, 0.7 liters of wine and at the end 5 dl of alcohol (pure).
  • Leave it for five days in a dark, cool place.
  • Take 3 times a tablespoon of drink an hour before eating.

Recipe No. 2

Tea made from mallow
  • In 2.5l of cold water 2 tablespoons of mixture of mallow and lady's bedstraw.
  • Let it stand overnight.
  • Morning tea boil and drink during the day in small sips.

Throat cancer; FORECAST

It largely depends on the extent of tumor prior to diagnosis and appropriate therapy, so it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon possible when they occur above mentioned - throat cancer symptoms that cannot be ignored.

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Lactose intolerance symptoms | lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance symptoms

Lactose intolerance causes unpleasant digestive problems, including diarrhea, cramps in the intestines, pain and heaviness in the stomach, nausea, headaches. Problems with the digestion of milk after meals like excessive production of gas, cramps, nausea, diarrhea and bloating of the stomach, in many cases indicates a reduced ability to digest milk sugar - lactose. This is not as uncommon, as many as 70% of the world's population has an unpleasant gas after they drink a glass of milk.

Lactose intolerance and milk allergy - DIFFERENCES

Lactose intolerance is caused by a partial or complete lack of the enzyme lactase, responsible for the breakdown of milk sugar, which is secreted by cells of the digestive tract. If there is no enough lactase, undigested lactose reaches the large intestine and begins to ferment, producing acids and gases. For most people after the age there is a reduction in the ability of digestion of milk sugar. Lactose intolerance, which causes reduced ability to digest milk, should be distinguished from allergies to milk and milk products, which occurs in case of disturbances in the immune system.

Lactose intolerance; SYMPTOMS

Symptoms of lactose intolerance such as frequent stomach bloating, diarrhea, cramps in the intestines, stomach and weight in the stomach, nausea and headache, occur in ten to 30 minutes after a milk meal, indicate indigestion of lactose. The easiest way to check if there is lactose intolerance is the exclusion of dairy products from the diet for at least two weeks. If improvement occurs, you can do a test that is the inclusion in the diet a little milk or some cheese, and wait for the reaction.
In this way one can determine the amount of dairy products that should be excluded because it is not always necessary that the lactose in foods is completely eliminated. However, in order to be sure of the diagnosis, consult the special tests that are done immediately after the milk meal, which measures the amount of hydrogen in the exhale or blood glucose levels, while in babies and young children measured is pH of their stool.


The latest and most accurate technique is PCR (genotyping), which determines the innate deficiency of the enzyme lactose, but this diagnostic procedure is not applied routinely in clinical practice.

Lactose intolerance; TYPES
  • Congenital lactose intolerance occurs immediately after birth, and the result is a lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine.
  • Acquired lactose intolerance occurs in adolescence and adulthood, when the cells of the digestive tract do not produce enough lactase.
  • Secondary lactose intolerance is the result of temporary lactase deficiency resulting from damage to the mucous membrane of the small intestine, in the case of infections of the digestive tract caused by bacteria and viruses, protein intolerance, celiac disease and chronic inflammation of the intestines.

Lactose free milk

If the lactose is eliminated it is the only way to avoid problems with digestion. In some cases it is not necessary that the products containing milk completely out of the diet, it is sufficient for this type of food to be consumed in moderation. In fact, people who are lactose intolerant can easily digest ten grams of this enzyme, and the unpleasant symptoms of intolerance will arise only when this amount is exceeded. However, if you do not want to give up enjoying dairy products, health food stores and pharmacies can buy enzyme lactase powder, to be taken with dairy products to prevent problems. Also, today in the market there is a cow's milk without lactose, which can also be consumed in an arbitrary amount.


Milk is the largest source of lactose, and fermented milk products contain somewhat smaller amounts of milk sugar. Kefir and yogurt in part have less lactose and helps with digestion, as well as semi-hard and hard cheeses. However, lactose intolerance requires each individual to pay attention to the hidden sources of the substance, such as ice cream, chocolate, some fruit yogurts, and certain types of bread, sweeteners, most drugs and supplements. It is therefore very important that you carefully read the declaration on products you purchase and consume.

Soy, rice, millet, oatmeal, coconut and almond milk

An excellent substitute for milk of animal origin are different vegetable milks which are very simple and can be made at home. Soy, rice, almond, coconut, millet and oat milk is completely safe to consume, because they do not contain no lactose. In the market there are also those which are further enriched with calcium and other minerals and vitamins.


You need:
  • 1 cup of raw almonds
  • 4 cups of plain water
  • 2-3 dates, pitted
  • A pinch of salt

Preparation: Put the almonds in a pan, pour water and leave it to soak in it overnight. The next day, drain them, put in a blender and add two to three dates, a pinch of salt and four cups of water, then mix and strain through cheesecloth. Almond milk is poured into a glass bottle and kept in the fridge, which retains the freshness of three to four days. Ground almonds that remain can be dried and stored for cakes.

CALCIUM FOR THE BONES - Lactose intolerance

It is known that this precious mineral is essential for healthy bones and teeth, and that is very important for the treatment of osteoporosis, and milk and dairy products are an excellent source of calcium. However, many plant foods, including sesame (has six times more calcium than milk), dried figs, chickpeas, almonds, kale, carob, cauliflower and soy, are unjustly neglected as a source of this important nutrient. Also, avoid foods that "steal" calcium, such as soft drinks, sugar, caffeine, industrial food and an excessive amounts of salt.

Lactose intolerance in children

Lactose intolerance occurs immediately after birth in premature children, while the disorder in other children does not usually manifest before age of three. Digestive problems are similar like in adults - diarrhea, abdominal and stomach cramps, constipation, bloating, gas, nausea, fatigue. If you suspect that your child suffers from lactose intolerance, dietary him for two weeks discard all milk products, including foods that contain milk, and then gradually introduce them in small quantities. If all the signs indicate that lactose intolerance is there, be sure to take your child to a doctor, who will probably suggest that you do a breath test after a meal with lactose or to do a pH test of stool. When the diagnosis of the disorder is set, young children need to fully exclude from the diet foods that contain lactose, while older children can take it in small quantities, or in combination with other foods, not isolated. Infants and young children instead of cow's milk can consume hypoallergenic formula milk or vegetable milk.

Yogurt for digestion

People with lactose intolerance can freely consume yogurt, which is already partially digested. Bacteria from this potion assume the role of an enzyme that is missing and digest considerable amount of milk sugar. Cultures that turn milk into yogurt devour a greater amount of lactose during fermentation, and when it gets into the intestine, they eat the rest. All that matters is that yogurt contains live bacterial cultures, preferably Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophilus.


If in a cup of milk add a teaspoon of cocoa which will stop stomach cramps, bloating and other symptoms of lactose intolerance. These are the results of the recent studies, and the reason is that cocoa probably stimulates enzyme activity. However, intolerant person should check how well it can take chocolate milk, so it is best to drink it in small quantities (about half a cup) and wait for two to three days to establish whether the lactose intolerance occurs!

Snoring during sleep in adults | causes | treatment

Snoring in adults 

Snoring in sleep is caused by a narrowing of the upper airways in the mouth, nasal cavity of the larynx and pharynx, where the passage of air which is coming through the mucous membrane vibrates and creates noise. Since it comes to a very unpleasant sound phenomenon, snoring is a kind of social problem not just health one, it is very badly accepted.

Snoring Causes

The causes of snoring can be: deviation of the nose, chronic inflammation of the mucous membranes, allergies, polyps then congenital deformity of the lower jaw, a disorder in the growth of teeth, large tongue and soft palate, uvula or longer constricted throat.


The problem with sleep disordered breathing is especially pronounced in obese people with thick and short neck. Problems with snoring worsen with the use of alcohol and cigarettes but also when taking medicines for relaxation. Sometimes snoring in sleep is caused by some of the hormonal disorders which is in quite rare cases occurs as a result of neurological disorders, brain damage and cancer.


The most common cause of this disorder in children are enlarged tonsils, although birth defects such as narrow nasal cavity, pharynx, or narrowing of the larynx disease are not excluded.

Snoring in pregnancy

Many women may begin to snore just during pregnancy. The reason is that pregnant women significantly gain weight, and it can influence respiratory airways. Organism in pregnant women is characterized by enhanced blood circulation, which dilates blood vessels in that part of the body and therefore hinders breathing and causes snoring in sleep. Also enhanced stress can contribute to the whole situation.


Endoscopy, otorhinologist have an excellent insight into the state of our upper airways and recommended that personal check up is done. If a disorder in the sleep is serious that leads up to the cessation of breathing - apnea slip it is necessary to submit to a special examination called - polysomnography. With this method, we get a clear insight into the length and number of such episodes with termination of breathing. Depending of weight disorders therapy is carried out. It can be conservative and operational. Also pursue alternative medicine acupuncture, hypnosis, bioenergy and phytotherapy.


With an operating method, surgeons reinforce the palate and uvula and the best results are achieved by laser surgery. Also for snoring during sleep there are several aids - oral prosthesis for a tongue that is used during sleep. Tubes are pushing forward tongue (oral-pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal washes pharyngeal), a device that prevents relaxation of the jaw - orthodontic appliance and many others.

How to prevent snoring

Avoid tense situation and stress during the day to allow your body a healthy and good quality sleeps. Very helpful is everyday walking, cycling, spending time with friends, listening to music, etc.
Chronic fatigue is one of the main causes of snoring during sleep; we will give you a great recipe for relaxation.

Honey and cinnamon; Recipe
  • Pour half the cinnamon and honey in warm water and stir well.
  • The healing potion is the best to be drunk in the afternoon.

Make it a habit to always go to bed at the same time and sleep at least 7-8 hours. After a week vitality and energy will return.

Stuffy nose, inhalation

Snoring in sleep is also causes by the clogged nose. You need to free the airways and as the best means recommended is inhalation.

Recipe No.1
  • At bedtime breathe through the nose, to which you added a few drops of essential oil of mint or eucalyptus.

Recipe No. 2
  • The solution for the throat of maternal reduces swelling and expands respiratory tracts. If snoring is caused by allergies or colds this means it is extremely effective. In a cup of cold water, add a drop of oil of mint and gargle - do not swallow.

Recipe No.3

Incense oil 
  • For the treatment of arthritis in Ayurvedic medicine, as well as for wound healing and protection of various infections it has been used for thousands of years. For snoring in in sleep recommended is to apply frankincense oil on the chest, neck and area around the nose. Also humidifier that produces steam in the bedroom is applied, and thus maintain the humidity of the airways.

How to stop snoring

Avoid cigarettes, alcohol and drugs for relaxation. Cigarettes smoke constricts airways, irritates mucous membranes and often causes clogged nose. Large evening meals and especially alcohol consumption significantly impedes the flow of air, do not eat at least 3 hours before going to bed.

Astigmatism of the eye | test | symptoms | treatment

Astigmatism Symptoms and treatment

Astigmatism is a common eye disorder of sight at which serious forms of the disease require vision correction prescription glasses with contact lenses which are sometimes necessary that can lead to surgery.

What is astigmatism of the eye? 

Astigmatism means the asymmetry of the cornea (the transparent layer that covers the front of the eyeball), whose main role is to pass through and refracted light rays, allowing them to focus on the retina retina) at the back of the eye. However, when the cornea is unevenly covering the eyeball, then the rays are not focused on a single point, and the result is blurred vision. Otherwise, the ideal cornea has symmetrical curved surface, like a ball. Astigmatism in milder forms usually does not cause vision problems, because blinking maintains the symmetry of the curve of the cornea. In more severe forms it is necessary to do correction with prescription glasses, contact lenses, or with necessary performed eye surgery. This disorder can be congenital or hereditary, and sometimes is caused by some injury of the eyeball, or some scarring of the cornea that occurs after injury or infection. Also, astigmatism of the eye often occurs in combination with other problems in the refraction of light, such as nearsightedness and farsightedness.

Astigmatism of the eye; TYPES 

It is still not known exactly what causes astigmatism, it is certain that its presence in most cases is affected by external factors.

Keratoconus and blurred vision

Severe, but fortunately rare form of astigmatism - keratoconus, is the state where the cornea progressively thins and takes on a conical shape. This disorder usually manifests itself in adolescence or early adulthood. Otherwise, the cornea is composed of transparent collagen fibers, which keep its normal shape, and in the case of keratoconus is weakened, causing blurred vision.
Keratoconus in advanced stages can threaten eyesight and then transplantation is required, but modern therapy in most cases eliminates the problem.

Lenticular Astigmatism of the eye 

It occurs due to abnormalities of another curved structure inside the eye - natural internal crystalline lens, which also focuses light rays. Blurred vision due lenticular astigmatism can be corrected with prescription glasses and contact lenses.

Astigmatism Symptoms

This visual disturbance is followed by the most common signs such as blurred vision or double vision object under examination.

Typical symptoms for astigmatism eye are:
  • Blurred images of small objects and letters, difficulty when reading
  • Double images
  • The inability to see objects at near and far distances without blinking

Astigmatism in children

It is especially important to know that children with blurred vision do not realize that this is a problem, because they have no previous experience on which to base that conclusion on. Therefore, regular examination by an ophthalmologist is extremely important, to ensure timely treatment. Children with problems such as astigmatism of the eye can suffer from the following problems:
  • Difficulty in focusing on the printed words and lines
  • Fatigue and pain in the eyes, headache

Astigmatism; EYE TEST

The most common symptom of astigmatism is blurred of vision, and to give a diagnosis applied are four tests:


The patient reads letters or numbers from a standard table, with a distance of six meters.


In front of the eye corrective lenses of different strengths are put, until the patient is able to clearly see numbers (or letters) on the control panel. Then ophthalmologist determines the diopter. Sometimes a device – retinoscope is used to identify the refraction of light rays in the eye.


Special-condition measured by the curvature of the central cornea in both eyes, which in the case of astigmatism is not identical. Keratometre determines the highest and lowest level of curvature, allowing an ophthalmologist to determine the shape and focusing ability of the cornea. This device is also used when prescribing contact lenses as well as to check the curvature of the cornea after eye surgery.

Topography of the cornea

With this advanced diagnostic methods obtained is the most accurate information about the shape of the cornea. The patient looks at a visual target, based on the data recorded by the real computer map we get a clear insight into the state of the cornea. This data is important for planning refractive surgery, cataract surgery and sometimes to determine the types of contact lenses.

Astigmatism; TREATMENT

Even though measures to prevent astigmatism are still unknown, this disorder is successfully corrected with prescription glasses, contact lenses or if necessary surgery. Also, many doctors believe that astigmatism of the eye in the mildest degree should not be treated.

Astigmatism; cylinders 

Glasses with cylindrical glass for astigmatism of the eye

The special cylindrical glasses neutralize the effects of irregular shape of the cornea which causes blurred vision. This glass requires a certain period of adaptation, because the image that people see depends on the angle of refraction. If there is no complete adjustment after a week (or slightly longer) of wearing special glasses, be sure to see an ophthalmologist to get correct glasses.

Cylindrical contact lenses

For astigmatism, the eye is also successfully treated used lenses with cylinders. All contact lenses rotate when a person blinks, but ones used to correct astigmatism - the so-called toric lenses - are designed to return to the same position each time subject blinks and compensate for the irregularity of the cornea.

Laser eye surgery

This procedure reshapes the cornea with the laser beam, so that it can more precisely focus the light rays. The surgery is performed under local anesthesia, after which the patient is given antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drops. This procedure can be followed by some side-effects, particularly with reflection from the different sources of light, which impairs the clarity of vision at night. In addition, often after the procedure occurs dry eye syndrome, which is solved by the use of adequate drops. Astigmatic keratectomy is another surgical procedure to correct astigmatism. The surgeon makes small incisions in the cornea, the least prominent parts of wrong curved cornea, allowing for more precise focusing of light rays on the retina.